hittites social structure

[14] The multiplicity is doubtless an artifact of a level of social-political localization within the Hittite "empire" not easily reconstructed. The foremost experts on the Egyptian and Hittite armies of the period estimate the size of the Egyptian force at between 25,000 and 30,000 men comprised of four divisions of 6,000 each, plus some nim and allied Canaanite chariot contingents. Gods were often depicted standing on the backs of their respective beasts, or may have been identifiable in their animal form.[3]. Hittite mythology and Hittite religion were the religious beliefs and practices of the Hittites, who created an empire centered in what is now Turkey from c. 1600 BC to 1180 BC. Hittites. Infantry, chariots, and archers shared the same organizational structure, with squads of ten, companies of ten squads, and battalions of ten companies. ( Log Out /  The world’s first “domino theory” was born. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. The full military manpower pool of Hatti was available to the king, as were military contingents from allied states. Ancient art and artifacts.

1 (2013): 63-105.

Kumarbi is the father of Tarhunt; his role in the Song of Kumarbi is reminiscent of that of Cronus in the Theogony of Hesiod. The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. At the top of the social pyramid was the king followed by his vizier, the members of his court, priests and scribes, nomarchs, and the generals of the military. Image via wikipedia . Under these conditions of short distances to combat closure, even a heavy machine could move fast enough to inflict sudden and decisive shock. The Hittites used their chariots as mounted heavy infantry, and they were the key to the success of the Hittite army fighting in open terrain. There are no known details of what the Hittite creation myth may have been but scholars speculate that the Hattian mother goddess who is believed to be connected to the "great goddess" concept known from the Neolithic site Çatal Hüyük may have been a consort of the Anatolian storm god (who is believed to be related to comparable deities from other traditions like Thor, Indra and Zeus).[7]. J. G. Macqueen, '"Hattian Mythology and Hittite Monarchy'", R.Lebrun, "Le zoomorphisme dans la religion hittite,". Unfortunately despite their helpful interference, nature cannot return to its status quo until the god completes the final step before normality sets in. Hittite society was a feudal order based on land ownership and fiefdoms governed nationally by a council of great families, called the Pankus. The Storm God then steps in and slays the serpent himself.

Ḫupašiya is, of course, reluctant to assist without some kind of incentive, so he gets Inara to sleep with him before they carry out her scheme. Next lesson. It was typical of Hittite strategy to attempt to catch the enemy on the march and ambush him with a sudden rush of infantry-carrying chariots and to be on him before he could deploy to meet the attack. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The powerful gods provoke a fight or do something else to create the central issue of each myth, and then the goddesses clean up after them and solve everything with intellect.

The basic weapons of the Hittite infantry were the medium-length spear, the axe, and the sickle sword. Mursilis passed the Hittite throne to his son Muwatallis (1308-1285 b. c. e.), who suppressed revolts in Arzawa and the Gasgan lands, making certain that domestic events did not interfere with the emerging conflict with Egypt. Kingship was not necessarily inherited, for kings could name their successor. However this infuriates Telipinu further and he "diverts the flow of rivers and shatters the houses".

The chariot’s role was to close quickly with the enemy infantry, delivering maximum shock, then to dismount and fight as heavy infantry. The miller-women who used to prepare sacrificial loaves of the gods have died, so that they no longer make the sacrificial loaves. In the 13th century BC some explicit gestures toward syncretism appear in inscriptions. The Hittites and Ancient Anatolia. The Hittite economy was based on agriculture,trade and commerce. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. This was a clear challenge to Egypt, and armed conflict was inevitable. Gods held much of the obvious power, but without dedicated practice and ritual from mortals, they couldn't function. The liminal figure mediating between the intimately connected worlds of gods and mankind was the king and priest; in a ritual dating from the Hittite Old Kingdom period: The gods, the Sun-God and the Storm-God, have entrusted to me, the king, the land and my household, so that I, the king, should protect my land and my household, for myself.[8]. One can understand the tactical role of Hittite chariotry by remembering that the Hittite art of war developed in the inhospitable terrain of the Anatolian plateau, which afforded few open plains where chariots could maneuver but offered numerous valleys and defiles from which a hidden army could suddenly strike at an unsuspecting enemy. Hittite central authority waxed and waned from one period to the next.

Another myth reflecting this style of plot is "The Slaying of the Dragon.

Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Despite this danger, the Hittites mostly communicated with their gods in an informal manner, and individuals often simply made requests of the gods without the accompaniment of rituals or the assistance of priests when the occasion was casual. Muwatallis moved quickly to reduce the threat with armed intervention against Kadesh, Carchemesh, and Allepo, bringing them to heel and installing Hittite rulers and garrisons. People approached the hall by climbing a staircase lined with pillars.

Ishara is a goddess of the oath; lists of divine witnesses to treaties seem to represent the Hittite pantheon most clearly,[17] though some well-attested gods are inexplicably missing. Thus, "there are no canonical scriptures, no theological disquisitions or discourses, no aids to private devotion". With trade came new ideas for social and economic concepts. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. "Hittite Cult Inventories — Part One: The Hittite Cult Inventories as Textual Genre." The Destruction of Army Group Center, 1944. The Hittite army was constructed around a core professional force loyal to the king and augmented by forces provided by the king’s vassals. When the Assyrian King Tukulti-Ninurta carried off 28,000 Hittites in a border raid in 1242 B.C., the Hittite response was a trade embargo rather than a military expedition. He achieved a temporary diplomatic settlement to blunt renewed Assyrian pressure in the Mitanni region. The Hittite arm of decision was its chariotry. These abilities are the characteristics of a professional army, not an army of conscripts. Once the king died, he was deified, having served his people and worshiped the gods faithfully. ( Log Out /  At the top was the noble class.

"The Power of Narrative in Hittite Literature.".

Since mythology was a large part of Hittite cult practice, an understanding of Ishtar’s powers and history was essential to the development of rituals and incantations invoking her. In the fifth year of his rule, 1275 b. c. e., Ramses II set out to destroy Hittite influence in Syria and to drive it back behind the Taurus Mountains. Hittite infantry had been developed in the rough terrain of Anatolia, where the land itself placed a premium on ground troops used in various ways. For the village in Lancashire, England, see, "Jarri" redirects here. Puduhepa, a queen and priestess, worked on organizing and rationalizing her people's religion. The Hittites occupied the Anatolian peninsula from approximately 1900 to 1000 b. c. e. The origins of this rugged people skilled in mountain warfare remain obscure, but the evidence suggests that their settlement in Anatolia began with the tribal migrations of peoples whose origins lay in the area that stretches from the lower Danube along the north shore of the Black Sea to the northern foothills of the Caucasus Mountains. Much like in the Telipinu myth, a human was used to help the gods in their plots, which further emphasizes the familiar relationship between mortal and divine. He must wake up and resume his duties, or kill the beast, or some other action that proves his power is beyond all others. The Hittites, due to there large territory, traded with people throughout the mediterranean and Egypt.

[6], Hittite mythology is a mix of Hattian, Hurrian and Hittite influences. King Mursili II made a plea to the gods on behalf of his subjects, at a time when their agricultural livelihoods were struggling: "All of the land of Hatti is dying, so that no one prepares the sacrificial loaf and libation for you (the gods).

The myth centers around a serpent (or dragon) that represents the "forces of evil" and defeats the Storm God in a fight. The passage of time would only work to the Hittite advantage as they strengthened their hold on the area. In the end, the goddess Kamrusepa uses healing and magic to calm Telipinu after which he returns home and restores the vegetation and fertility. In order to stop the havoc and devastation, the gods seek Telipinu but fail to find him. The chief animals they raised were cattle and sheep. Up Next. The combination of these characteristics greatly increased her influence, as fertility of the earth was one of the most fundamental priorities for the Hittites. Bachvarova, Mary R. "Adapting Mesopotamian Myth in Hurro-Hittite Rituals at Hattuša: Ištar, the Underworld, and the Legendary Kings," in Beyond Hatti: A Tribute to Gary Beckman, edited by Billie Jean Collins and Piotr Michalowski. The Hittite economy was based on agriculture,trade and commerce.

"[5] This myth was recited during New Year rituals, which were performed to ensure agricultural prosperity in the coming year. [10] Subtle changes like this were also made possible with her absorption/close association of other goddesses, namely Anzili, as well as Šawuška, and Geštinanna. It also highlights the roles that goddesses played, within myth and in life. Cammarosano, Michele. "[1][12], Obviously, the preservation of good relationships with deities that were closely affiliated with nature and agriculture, such as Arinna, would have been essential. The scribes in the royal administration, some of whose archives survive, were a bureaucracy, organizing and maintaining royal responsibilities in areas that would be considered part of religion today: temple organization, cultic administration, reports of diviners, make up the main body of surviving texts.

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