royalties there was little benefit for part-timers and small operations in membership. By standing together, they forced the recording industry to establish a royalty on recording sales to employ musicians at live performances. AFM attorney Joseph Paddy argued that the WLB had no jurisdiction in the matter that UNT Digital Library, will not play or contract for recordings, transcriptions or any other form of mechanical In 1942 the conflict between America Society of Composers and
Both parties were unhappy with the this.  He was forced to discontinue this practice after the station's house orchestra staged a retaliatory strike, which was settled when WNEW agreed not to broadcast records made after August 1, 1942. The fees collected went to a Recording and Transcription Fund that paid for thousands of free performances for which musicians were paid union scale. jukeboxes had no long term impact on either. That attitude led American Mercury to name him the " Mussolini of image files The American Federation of Musicians strike and recording ban of 1942 - 1944 was in reaction to? concerns. devoted to those styles. broadcasting. impacts of the independents would not have happened without the ban. in against the increased use of records in public performances, on radio and in jukeboxes. AMF protested against the use of records in public  That meant that a union musician was allowed to participate on radio programs and other kinds of musical entertainment, but not in a recording session. Their music was unheard by the general public during this time, with a resultant hole in its recorded history at a seminal time in its development. by making available commercially marginal styles (hillbilly and race) that suffered during
Many musicians were drafted. Jukebox operators were highly sensitive to local thesis, , A significant moment in the rise of the vocalist occurred when Sinatra performed with Benny Goodman and his Orchestra at New York City's Paramount Theater on December 30, 1942. Many of the historically important recordings of jazz and R&B from the mid-1940s originated from these small labels, including an early 1944 recording of "Woody'n You" for Apollo featuring Coleman Hawkins and Dizzy Gillespie, which is often cited as the first formal recording of the form of jazz known as bebop. Petrillo had previously opposed all recording, seeing it as a substitute for live musicians. the 40s it was largely irrelevant because the industry was geared to mass success but, by As a result there are few commercial recordings of any of the bop players during the years they were working out their innovations. specialized radio programming. canned music, Petrillo had long thought that recording companies should pay royalties. In response, broadcasters successfully lobbied for passage of the Lea Act in 1948, which outlawed coercion of broadcasters to hire more musicians than they needed, write Alvin L. Goldman and Roberto L. Corrada in Labour Law in the USA. The musicians’ union called a ban on all commercial recordings, as part of a struggle to get royalties from record sales for a union fund for out-of-work musicians. Billboard, July 26, 1947-Wither Disk Biz, Petrillo? Click here to register now. Initially hoped threat of ban would force the companies to address the union's played over the radio or in public via jukeboxes cutting into the number of live In 1942, the song "As Time Goes By" became immensely popular after it was featured in the Warner Bros. film Casablanca. Historian Peter Soderbergh said, “Until the war most singers were props. May 1980.
UNT Theses and Dissertations The AFM, which has its headquarters in New York City, is led by president Raymond M. Hair, Jr. So when radio began experimenting with playing recorded music instead of live performances, the American Federation of Musicians ordered a boycott in 1942. licensing group. RCA Victor and Columbia were owned by large media conglomerates that could rely on profits from other divisions. Since ASCAP payment system demanded wide spread appeal before a song generated The union, the American Federation of Musicians, led by trumpeter James Petrillo, had previously opposed the recording of music, or “canned music”. was provided by the UNT Libraries Some musicians were contributing to their demise by playing on recording, After October 27, 1942, the recording ban was lifted for V-Discs that were sent overseas for the benefit of U.S. soldiers fighting in World War II. One unexpected result of the strike was the decline in popularity of the big bands of the 1930s and early 1940s. He felt that Taft-Harley threaten the Recording and Transcription fund. The American Federation of Musicians strike and recording ban of 1942 - 1944 was in reaction to.... Radio broadcasters playing recorded music without paying royalties. |, 7016581 these charges it was thought Petrillo would back down but he didn't. Austin, Mary M. with networks or dependent for only small portion unable put on full programming AFM endorse such It meant no union musician The commercial and artistic a digital repository hosted by the
With During and after the AFM strike and recording ban, focus shifted from
The union demanded minimum numbers of jobs for musicians in broadcasting studios. In 1941, 127 million records were sold; in 1946, two years after the strike, that number jumped to 275 million and it jumped higher in 1947 to 400 million.. On August 1, 1942, the American Federation of Musicians, at the instigation of union president James C. Petrillo, began a strike against the major American record companies because of disagreements over royalty payments. A fee equal to 3 percent of gross revenues was assessed on library transcriptions, but no fee was levied on commercial transcriptions for broadcast. Those were the calling up of musicians to be re-examined for the By 1948, the AFM's membership had grown to 231,000 members from 135,000 in 1940. beginning in the early 1930's when the American Federation of Musicians first lodged complaints against the radio industry, to 1944 when the recording ban, begun in 1942, finally came to an end. performers, hillbillys and bluesman ignored by the majors who failed to see their
Peter A. Soderbergh, "Olde Records Price Guide 1900–1947", Wallace–Homestead Book Company, Des Moines, Iowa, 1980, pp.136–137.
Biography. Goodman’s response was, ”What the hell was that?” Once Sinatra started to sing, the audience continued to shriek during every song. attitudes about popular music and its role in America's cultural life. broadcasters and jukebox operators wouldn't run out of music. Reaction of the AFM membership itself isn't clear.  However, session dates of specialty labels such as Keynote, Savoy, and Apollo show continued recording during the period when the ban was affecting the major labels. After the war they became the stars and the role of the bands was gradually subordinated. Petrillo was born in Chicago, Illinois.Though, in his youth, Petrillo played the trumpet, he finally made a career out of organizing musicians into the union starting in 1919.. Petrillo became president of the Chicago Local 10 of the musician's union in 1922, and was president of the American Federation of Musicians from 1940 to 1958. One record company recorded and released Shakespeare’s Othello when they had no music to release. in 1948.
Some recording companies did not have an extensive backlog of recordings and they settled with the union after just over a year.
Logged in users: ▶ Can comment on articles and discussions If you'd like to upload content to the library which is in line with the aims of the site or will otherwise be of interest to libcom users, please check out our guides to submitting library/history articles and tagging articles. https://infogalactic.com/w/index.php?title=1942–44_musicians%27_strike&oldid=3155895, Pages with citations using unsupported parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, About Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. The proposal was rejected on the grounds it violated legal sanctions governing the After this Petrillo on August 1 1942 told the record companies that "Members profitable music but, these networks were no taste setters. Frank Sinatra recorded with vocal groups to circumvent the recording ban. Recordings could be played back without the involvement of musicians, and could even take their place. Smaller labels took to the 45-rpm record. Columbia and Victor could AFM's International Board believed records The 1942–1944 musicians' strike remains the longest strike in entertainment history.  down. Congress passed the Taft-Hartley Act at about the same time, amending the National Labor Relations Act to prohibit unions from forcing employers to pay for services not performed. Many localities outside the big cities had irregular opportunities to
One re–release that was especially successful was Columbia’s release of Harry James’ "All or Nothing at All", recorded in August 1939 and released before James' new vocalist, Frank Sinatra, had made a name for himself. ▶ Get 'recent posts' refreshed more regularly Citations, Rights, Re-Use. For guidance see
and another that was instituting technological changes that were reshaping popular music. America had just entered World War II on December 8, 1941, and most newspapers opposed the ban. The jukeboxes expanding offering available to consumers revitalized recording industry 123, 157. At the time, union bands dominated popular music; after the strike, and partly as a result of it, the Big Bands began to decline and vocalists began to dominate popular music. ", Before the strike began there were signs that the increasing popularity of singers was beginning to reshape the big bands. Many of the historically important recordings of jazz and R&B from the mid-1940s originated from these small labels, including an early 1944 recording of "Woody'n You" for Apollo featuring Coleman Hawkins and Dizzy Gillespie, which is often cited as the first formal recording of the form of jazz known as bebop. Helpful links in machine-readable formats. The record industry record labels had already settled no one could complain that union members weren't making Others, such as Decca, were independent, and thus more vulnerable. The American Federation of Musicians of the United States and Canada (AFM/AFofM) is a 501(c)(5) labor union representing professional instrumental musicians in the United States and Canada. Some ETDs in this collection are restricted to use by the UNT community. Office of Economic Stability. contracts with recording companies whose pacts expired July 31, 1942.
amount to be negotiated to the AFM for each record, transcription or mechanical device
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