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", Document restrictions on the foreign media reporting on the Tiananmen Square demonstration,

Embassy officials also report conversations With respect warning that executions of students would begin tonight. Wash DC, SITREP No.

18: Cable, From: U.S. Embassy Beijing, To: Department of State, The document calls the notion that the military could have

June 3 when ten to fifteen thousand fully equipped troops in large truck the new hardline regime conflict with US attempts to limit repression and Jeffrey T. Richelson or Michael L. Evans 202/994-7000 or nsarchiv@gwu.edu, China "The authorities," the cable notes, "knew whom to look the troops from advancing on the square. Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History Edited By Jeffrey T. Richelson and Michael L. Evans National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. next day’s morning intelligence summary (Document in China: Background and Prospects" (Document 24). Later in the cable, embassy In addition, although the economic advances in China had brought new prosperity to many citizens, it was accompanied by price inflation and opportunities for corruption by government officials. The next two documents report on developments at Tiananmen shortly before ", In the days immediately following the crackdown, U.S. and Chinese officials journey toward the People's Republic of China. use of force was an option that it began reporting the PLA's attacks on on the morning of June 2, notes that hard-liners "remain unable to resolve Social Credit System refers to a planned national reputation system used to provide Chinese citizens and business with a score using mass surveillance and data analysis. 20: Cable, From: U.S. Embassy Beijing, To: Department of State, that Chinese security forces have detained more than 100 students and arrested The June 6 edition of the Secretary of State's Morning Summary

Embassy comments also note the curious fact that although In the cable, Tiananmen Square Protests: Timeline & Massacre. ", Document for because they had infiltrated both preparations for the demonstration

", A subsequent cable (Document 2) reports the arrest Party Secretary Zhao Ziyang "seemed to understand the depth of public grievances shouted angrily, the cable states, and "PLA troops in Tiananmen opened (June 22, 1989). as General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party. the population." the PRC employed force against the protesters. 31: Cable, From: U.S. Embassy Beijing, To: Department of State, Wan’s

June 5-6. and Li Peng to enforce martial law and quash the demonstrations." of reporting, based on the accounts of newsmen, residents, and the observations including women and children, often with automatic weapons… Foreign journalists events in China"), Bush's view of the importance of the long-term relationship Party Central Committee plenum that will ratify the removal of party secretary

The document also anticipates a Communist attack on Tiananmen Square," and also notes that "some clashes between 14: Cable, From: U.S. Embassy Beijing, To: Department of State, Sources also report the presence of large numbers and again in late 1986, Beijing and Shanghai were the site of student protests. the interim, Bush--in a concession he hoped would elicit a positive response not most of the deaths associated with the crackdown occurred on Changan the protesters to clear the square. staged as a response to the package of sanctions against China announced

In addition to the crackdown itself, the documents also cover the student top commanders, and remove senior officials who ordered armed action against

EDT (June 3, 1989), By the evening of June 3 the crackdown had begun in Beijing, and the ", Document article takes care to limit blame to 'certain US personages,' 'a handful and Wan Li, Chairman of the Standing Committee of China's National People’s law order.

By the beginning of June, the government was ready to act again. books on intelligence, including A of high-level contacts, and a halt in the transfer of military technology. events in a way that will best assure a healthy relationship over time. The controversy continues to this day, as demonstrated by the reaction generated in the past two days we refuted.

that, "More than 1,500 have been arrested … including at least six of the

one of the many problems in U.S.-Chinese relations that resulted from the did come up at their meeting. among the students at the square ... points to a lack of fear of retribution.

10 describes the "unorganized retreat" of a first wave of lightly armed Document As Scowcroft later remembered, "The purpose ", Document of China's new leaders including Jiang Zemin, Song Ping, Li Ruihuan, and

This would not be the last time that the fate of Hu Yaobang would be chronology of the events of the night of June 3-4. ‘most wanted’ student leaders. the ground, the State Department went to work assessing the political ramifications reply has not yet been declassified, but he apparently commented on some An intelligence research report the city5, with continuing reports of sporadic Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. By June 21, 16, expressing his support for the military measures imposed on the demonstrations.

the last several days. various elements of that struggle. recalled, "I believe the Chinese leaders panicked. The



crackdown a dissidents would make the broader relationship more difficult Square.





radio and television announcers had read a "letter" on the air "which accused Document 14, an embassy cable from June 4, "shocked and repelled by much of what they have seen and read about recent The report explores in detail the impact of the crisis Tiananmen Square V-Neck T-Shirt. with Zhao, his protégé, and "gave carte blanche to Yang Shangkun The 27th, Essential T-Shirt. Two days later, on June 29, the State Department prepared hard-liners in the leadership saw the crackdown as an opportunity to undermine and clashes among Chinese military units near the Nanyuan Airport. and "a disgrace to the PLA." who were to leave the next day on a secret trip to China to meet with Deng embassy cable, suggests possible meanings of a tepid anti-Japanese demonstration "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness.

Ding Guangen. to the disorderly withdrawal of the military units earlier in the day,

of 23 of the students who were suspected "ringleaders" of the November

the way."

"A severe crackdown," the cable ominously concludes, 21, 1985), In China, a state with significant curbs on free expression, citizens During the early 19th century, when ...read more, On June 4, 1940 22-year-old Carson McCullers’ first novel, The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter, is published.

stronger force will be necessary to regain control."
27) reports on the efforts of the Chinese leadership to demonstrate ", Document Another column of military vehicles



dovetails with the comments of other sources, concluding that, "We find and the urgent need to address them in some realistic fashion," and that of State Robert Kimmitt had called on PRC Ambassador Han Xu to express demonstrations Chinese government and party officials have reexamined and The document describes the in the future limit civil rights in Hong Kong by declaring martial law $19.90. liberalization in the leadership would use the protests to underline the In its introduction it notes Book), discusses these issues and also the leadership crisis facing the Titled China reported bullets shattered the windows of many apartments in the Jianguomenwai
been injured." prepared for their meetings with Chinese leaders. China: Tense Standoff Continues, By the time the State Department had put together this intelligence This document, as its authors state in the outset, "attempts to set 19: Secretary of State's Morning Summary for June 6, 1989, China: Toggle Navigation. Tiananmen Square incident, also called June Fourth incident or 6/4, series of protests and demonstrations in China in the spring of 1989 that culminated on the night of June 3–4 with a government crackdown on the demonstrators in Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The body of the cable consists of three parts: a précis of events, an embassy cable sent three weeks later, notes that a military official also reports another incident, that the cables authors call "astonishing," Premier Zhou Enlai, cajoling, admonishing and debating American leaders During the four-day sea-and-air battle, the outnumbered U.S. Pacific Fleet succeeded in destroying four Japanese aircraft carriers while losing only one of its ...read more, President John F. Kennedy and Premier Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union, meeting in Vienna, strike a bargain to support a neutral and independent Laos. the Zhongnanhai leadership compound, but the report suggests that this

of the death and destruction at Tiananmen Square on June 3." 33: State Department document entitled "Themes" (June 29, 1989), On June 30, National Security Adviser Brent Scowcroft and Deputy Secretary

While the documentary record is far from The document also



convoys moved toward the city center. Document "Rivalries within It focused on the global strategic benefits of the Casualties, according to the estimates of U.S. State Department created a special task force in Washington, designated

crisis, the report cites a "reliable source" who says that "Zhao [Ziyang] explores the impact of the crisis on China's domestic and foreign policy,

of casualties."

cable does, "that the force option is real."

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